wie zijn de rishis

Bron: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Foto Rishikesh, India. Birthplace of the Vedic rishis.

rishi, (Sanskrit: [ci, Devanagari: 7?) denotes the composers of Vedic hymns. However, according to post-Vedic tradition the rishi is a "seer" to whom the Vedas were "originally revealed" through states of higher consciousness. The rishis rose into prominence when Vedic Hinduism took shape, perhaps as far back as some three thousand years ago.

It has often been asserted that some of the ancient rishis were in fact women. According to the Sarvanukramani text, there were as many as 20 women among the authors of the Rig Veda, known as rishika. However recent studies indicate that the names of female Rishis have artificially been constructed from unrelated words (not indicating names) in some hymns. Most, if not all, female Rishis in the Rigveda therefore are later derivations.

One of the foundational qualities of a rishi is satyavcas (one who speaks truth) when composing Vedic hymns. According to tradition, other sages might falter, but a rishi was believed to speak truth only, because he existed in the Higher World (the unified field of consciousness) according to the Sanskrit 'rici'. Rishis provided knowledge to the world which included the knowledge of Vedas.

Modern discussion of Rishis
"As the rishis described it, awareness begins in an unbounded state with pure consciousness and then cascades, plane by plane, until it reaches the physical world. That each level is within you, and the choice of boundaries - or unboundedness - is yours alone. Therefore journeys to heaven and hell are daily occurrences, not far-off possibilities."

"To the rishis, bliss (ananda) was more than the expansive feeling of ecstasy. It was the basic vibration, or hum, of the universe, the ground state from which all diversity springs... the possibility for creation to manifest. Bliss itself is far from the feeling of happiness or even joy, though in diluted form it can be experienced as both. It is simply the vibratory connection that allows pure consciousness to enter into creation"

"The seer, or observer, is rishi. The process of projecting is devata. The thing projected/created is chhandas. In a movie house, the audience is the rishi, the machine run by the projectionist is the devata, and the images on the screen are the chhandas. It's not so important to remember these terms, but ancient sages hit upon a universal rule of consciousness, called three-in-one. If you occupy any of these roles - seer, seen, or the process of seeing - you occupy all of them. These modest-sounding words have the potential to revolutionize the world."

In Indian tradition, the word has been derived from the two roots 'rsh'. Sanskrit grammarians (cf. Commentary on Unadi-Sutra, iv, 119) derive this word from the second root which means  'to go, move' (- Dhatupadha of Panini, xxviii). V. S. Apte gives this particular meaning and derivation, and Monier-Williams also gives the same, with some qualification. Another form of this root means 'to flow, to move near by flowing'. (All the meanings and derivations cited above are based upon Sanskrit English Dictionary of Monier-Williams). Monier-Williams also quotes Taranatha who compiled the great (Sanskrit-to-Sanskrit) dictionary named "[cati jñanena saCsara-param" (i.e., one who reaches beyond this mundane world by means of spiritual knowledge).

Monier-Williams tentatively suggested derivation from  "to see". Monier-Williams also quotes Hibernian (Irish) form 'arsan' (a sage, a man old in wisdom) and 'arrach' (old, ancient, aged) as related to rishi. In Sanskrit, forms of the root 'rish' become 'arsh-' in many words, e.g., arsh. Monier-Williams also conjectures that the root 'drish' (to see) might have given rise to an obsolete root 'rish' meaning 'to see'.

However, the root has a close Avestan cognate YrYšiš (Yasna 31.5; cf. 40.4) "an ecstatic" (see also Yurodivy, Vates). Yet, the Indo-European dictionary of Julius Pokorny connects the word to a PIE root meaning "rise, protrude", in the sense of "excellent, egregious".

Other modern etymological explanations such as by Manfred Mayrhofer in his Etymological Dictionary (Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindoarischen, Heidelberg 1986, I 261) leaves the case open, does not prefer a connection to [c "pour, flow" (PIE *h1ers), rather one with German 'rasen' "to be ecstatic, be in a different state of mind" (and perhaps Lithuanian 'aršus').
[edit] Other uses

In Carnatic Music, Rishi is the seventh chakra (group) of Melakarta ragas. The names of chakras are based on the numbers associated with each name. In this case, there are seven rishis and hence the 7th chakra is Rishi "Seer" of the Vedas

In the Vedas, the word denotes an inspired poet of Zgvedic hymns, who alone or with others invokes the deities with poetry. In particular, Zci refers to the authors of the hymns of the Rigveda. Post-Vedic tradition regards the Rishis as "sages" or saints, constituting a peculiar class of divine human beings in the early mythical system, as distinct from Asuras, Devas and mortal men.

The main rishis recorded in the Brahmanas and the Rigveda-Anukramanis include Gritsamada, Vishvamitra, Vamadeva, Atri, Bharadvaja, Vasishta, Angiras, KaGva.

Seven Rishis (the Saptarshi) are often mentioned in the Brahmanas and later works as typical representatives of the character and spirit of the pre-historic or mythical period; in Shatapatha Brahmana (Brhad Aranyaka Upanisad), their names are Uddalaka runi (also called Gautama), Bharadvaja, Vishvamitra, Jamadagni, Vasishtha, Kashyapa, and Atri. Daksha, Bhrigu and Narada were also added to the saptarshis ricis in shvalayana-Shrauta-Sutra, where these ten principals were created by the first Manu (Svayambhuva Manu) for producing everyone else.

In Mahabharata 12, on the other hand, there is the post-Vedic list of Marici, Atri, Angiras, Pulaha, Kratu, Pulastya and Vasishtha. The Mahabharata list explicitly refers to the saptarshis of the first manvantara (cf. SED by Monier-Williams) and not to those of the present manvantara. Each manvantara had a unique set of saptarshi. In Harivamsha 417ff, the names of the Rishis of each manvantara are enumerated.

In addition to the Saptarci, there are other classifications of sages. In descending order of precedence, they are Brahmarshi , Maharshi, Rajarshi. Devarci, Paramrci, Shrutarci and Kvndarci are added in Manusmriti iv-94 and xi-236 and in two dramas of Klidasa.

The Chaturvarga-Chintamani of Hemadri puts 'rici' at the seventh place in the eightfold division of Brahmanas. Amarakosha  (the famous Sanskrit synonym lexicon compiled by Amarasimha) mentions seven types of ricis : Shrutarshi, Kandarshi, Paramarshi, Maharshi, Rajarshi, Brahmarshi and Devarshi. Amarakosha strictly distinguishes Rishi from other types of sages, such as sanyasi, bhikcu, parivrajaka, tapasvi, muni, brahmachari, yati, etc.

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